Belief in Allah, His existence, and His Oneness is the basis of Islamic Shari’ah. Belief in this pillar would cause one to believe in the other pillars of faith, which the Prophet s informed us about when Jibreel asked him:
‘Tell me about faith (Imaan)?’ He replied: “To believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and that you believe in Predestination, its good and evil consequences.” [Muslim]
Who is Allah?
(He is the First and the Last, the Ascendant and the Intimate, and He is, of all things, Knowing.) [ 57:3 ]
Allah also says:
(He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, Knower of the unseen ( That which is absent, invisible, or beyond the perception of the senses or of the mind and therefore is unknown to man, except for what Allah chooses to reveal ) and the witnessed. He is the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Perfection, the Bestower of Faith, the Overseer, the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the best names. Whatever is in the heavens and earth is exalting Him. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.) [ 59:22-4 ]
- Allah is One; He has no partner who shares His domain. He has no wife or child and all creation depends upon Him.
- Allah has Names and Attributes which are not like unto His creation. Allah exists, and His existence is unlike that of His creatures.
- Everything in this universe is a definite proof of the existence of a Creator [Allah] who created it. Those who have sound intellect and natural disposition will understand this fully.
- Those who reject the existence of Allah do so because they seek tangible proofs which they can perceive through their senses.
Allah also says:
(Allah - there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of [all ] existence. Neither drowsiness overtakes Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they encompass not a thing of His knowledge except for what He wills. His footstool extends over the heavens and the earth, and their preservation tires Him not. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.) [ 2:255 ]
In Islam, Allah is known; for the Deen explains who Allah is, and informs us of His beautiful attributes, and how we can ask and seek nearness to Him. Among Allah’s attributes are the following:
Allah exists. The universe and all that is within it are proofs of His existence. Allah says:
(Say: “Observe what is in the heavens and earth.” But of no avail will be signs or warners to a people who do not believe.) [ 10:101 ]
Allah is One; He has no partner who shares His domain. He has no wife or child, and all creation depends upon Him alone.
He has no partner, rival or equal; all things are in need of Him, while He stands in need of none of His creatures. He was not begotten, nor does He beget. Allah says:
(Say: “He is Allah, [who is] One; Allah, the Eternal Refuge. He begets not, nor was He begotten and there is none comparable unto Him.) [ 112:1-4 ]
Allah is All-Knowing and His knowledge encompasses everything. Allah says:
(And, [O Muhammad], you are not [engaged ] in any matter or recite any of the Qur’an and you [people] do not do any deed except that We are witness over you when you are involved in it. And not absent from your Lord is any [part] of an atom’s weight within the earth or within the heaven or [anything] smaller than that or greater but that it is in a clear register.) [ 10:61 ]
Allah is Ever-Living, and He never dies. Allah says:
(He is the Ever-Living; there is no deity except Him, so call upon Him, [being] sincere to Him in religion. [All] praise is [due ] to Allah, Lord of the worlds.) [ 40:65 ]
Allah is All-Just. He is not a tyrant; He does not oppress, nor is injustice feared from Him. Allah says:
(And We shall set up the balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient are We as accountant.) [ 21:47 ]
Allah is Unique. Nothing resembles Him, nor can anything be compared to Him regarding His attributes or actions.
To Him belongs complete perfection in every aspect. Whatever He wills would come to pass; and what he does not would never be. Allah says:
(Allah - None has the right to be worshipped but Him. To Him belong the Most Beautiful of Names.) [ 20:8 ]
(The Creator of the heavens and the earth … There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.) [ 42:11 ]
Allah exists, and His existence is unlike that of His creatures. He hears and nothing is like unto Him in this attribute. He sees, and nothing is like unto Him in this attribute.
Allah has many Names and Attributes which are indicative of His perfection and magnificence. If one wishes, he may refer to books which detail them.
One should know, though, that Allah’s Names are not limited. The Prophet s said:
“No slave says upon feeling stress or sadness:
‘Allahumma innee ‘abduk, ibnu ‘abdik, ibnu amatik, nasiyatee biyadik, madin fiyya hukmuk, ‘adlun fiyya qada`uk, as`aluka bikull-ismin huwa lak, sammayta bihi nafsak, aw anzaltahu fee kitabik, aw ‘allamtahu ahadan min khalqik aw ista´tharta bihi fee ‘ilm il-ghaybi ‘indak, an taj‘al al-Qur`ana rabee‘a qalbee, wa noora sadree, wajalaa`a huznee wa dhahaaba hammee.’
Meaning: O Allah, I am Your slave, son of Your slave, son of Your female slave, my forelock is in Your Hand (i.e. You have total mastery over me). Your command over me is forever executed and Your decree over me is just. I ask You by every name belonging to You which You named Yourself with, or revealed in Your Book, or You taught to any of Your creation, or You have preserved in the knowledge of the unseen with You, that You make the Qur’an the life of my heart and the light of my chest, and a departure for my sorrow and a release for my anxiety…’ …except that Allah will cause his sorrow to disappear and replace it with joy.” [ Ahmed, Saheeh ibn Hibbaan] (Authenticated as Saheeh by Sheikh Al-Albaani (may Allah have mercy on him).)
Allah has Names and Attributes which are not like unto His creation. Allah exists, and His existence is unlike that of His creatures. He hears and nothing is like unto Him in this attribute. He sees, and nothing is like unto Him in this attribute. This general rule applies to all His Names and Attributes. Allah is as He described Himself:
(Allah knows what is [presently ] before them and what will be after them, but they do not encompass it in knowledge.) [ 20:110 ]
Man cannot comprehend the magnificence of Allah. Allah, the Exalted, says:
(Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives [all ] vision; and He is the Subtle, the Acquainted.) [ 6:103 ]
Due to the fact that humans have been created with the innate nature to inquire and find out the truth about various matters, pondering about Allah and His presence would not negate faith; rather, it would be a sign of one’s belief.